Chapter 19: The  Blood

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Instructional Objectives



19.01  Review the role of blood, interstitial fluid, and lymph in homeostasis.


19.02  Briefly describe the basic components of blood.   

19.03  Explain what is meant by hematocrit and "sed. rate" (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ESR). 

19.04  Describe the various components of plasma and discuss the function of each. 

19.05  List the formed elements of blood, including normal values, and describe the basic function of each. 

19.06  Describe the appearance, function and normal values of the five types of leukocytes.  Block

19.07  List the normal values of the differential count and tell its clinical significance.

19.08  Explain the difference between leukemia and lymphoma.

19.09  Describe the different types of leukemia and lymphoma.

19.10  Tell what is meant by non-specific and specific immunity.

19.11  Describe the role of B and T lymphocytes in specific immunity

19.12  Describe the importance of erythrocyte shape and discuss the role of hemoglobin in determine RBC shape.

19.13  Describe the structure of hemoglobin.

19.14  Describe the breakdown of hemoglobin.

19.15  Discuss the causes of jaundice.

19.16  Define anemia and describe the following types of the anemia:  iron deficiency, pernicious, aplastic, sickle cell and thalassemia.

19.17  Explain what is meant by myeloid tissue and lymphoid tissue.  Tell which formed elements are produced by each of these tissues.

19.18  Define hemopoiesis.  Trace the development of neutrophils.   Tell which forms are normally found in blood and under what circumstances immature forms can be found in the blood. 

            Blood Cell Development
  Left Shifted Blood

19.19  Trace the development of erythrocytes.  Tell which forms are normally found in the blood and under what circumstances immature forms can be found in the blood.

19.20  Describe the usefulness of the reticulocyte count.

19.21  Using a negative feedback diagram, describe the regulation of erythrocyte production.  Tell the rate at which erythrocytes are produced and their life span.  BLOCK

19.22  Describe the various abnormal red blood cell shapes.  BLOCK


19.23  Diagram the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways for blood clotting.

19.24  Discuss the differences between the extrinsic and intrinsic clotting pathways.

19.25 Describe the various types of hemophilia.

19.26  Explain why vitamin K is essential to the normal blood clotting process.

19.27  Explain why normal liver function is essential to the normal blood clotting process.

19.28  Explain how the following compounds prevent blood clotting:

        coumadin (Warfarin)/dicoumerol



19.29   List the four blood types along with the agglutinogens and agglutinins of each.  BLOCK

19.30   Tell which of the blood types may be mixed with each other.

               Blood Group Systems

19.31  Explain why type O blood is referred to as the universal donor whereas type AB blood is     referred to as the universal recipient.

19.32  Discuss the cause, treatment, and prevention of erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of the newborn).  BLOCK 

19.33  Explain why an Rh positive mother is not harmed during pregnancy by an Rh negative baby.